Difference between revisions of "Toolbox/The Ear"

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(Acoustic reflex.)
(unwanted spaces.)
 
(9 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
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__NOTOC__
 
__NOTOC__
  
Interactive diagrams are programs.  This is the program structure for the interactive diagram which shows the structure of the Ear:
+
{{ATK_Header}}
  
<pre>
+
This is the spec for the interactive diagram which shows the structure of the
VERTICAL_LAYOUT
+
Ear. There's an [https://wit.audacityteam.org/demos.htm?page=The_Ear interactive demo].
  RGBA_FOCUS_DETAIL Focus=SmallCircle
 
</pre>
 
  
The specification above builds a simple focus-detail display.
+
This is one of three related pages.  The other two are:
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>[https://wit.audacityteam.org/demos.htm?page=Middle_Ear_Anatomy Middle Ear] [[Toolbox/Middle_Ear_Anatomy|spec]]
 +
<li>[https://wit.audacityteam.org/demos.htm?page=Inner_Ear_Anatomy Inner Ear] [[Toolbox/Inner_Ear_Anatomy|spec]]
 +
</ul>
  
 
The detailed data for the regions, buttons and tooltips follows.
 
The detailed data for the regions, buttons and tooltips follows.
Line 14: Line 16:
 
<pre>START</pre>
 
<pre>START</pre>
  
<pre>IMAGE</pre>
+
<pre>ADD:DATA=
 +
[
 +
{"HStack":[
 +
    {"VStack":[
 +
        {"Rectangle":"The Ear"},
 +
        {"Rectangle":"Middle Ear Anatomy"},
 +
        {"Rectangle":"Inner Ear Anatomy"}
 +
        ],
 +
        "id":"Chooser",
 +
        "choice":1,
 +
        "sizeAs":0.32},
 +
    {"Overlay":[
 +
        {"Rectangle":"",
 +
        "style":"chosen"},
 +
        {"Image":"Ear"}
 +
        ]}
 +
    ],
 +
    "margins":1.6
 +
    }
 +
]
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
This is the chooser object.
 +
 
 +
<pre>NEXTOBJECT:</pre>
 +
 
 +
<pre>IMAGE:NAME=Ear</pre>
 
[[File:952px-Blausen_0328_EarAnatomy.png]]
 
[[File:952px-Blausen_0328_EarAnatomy.png]]
  
Line 22: Line 50:
  
  
<pre>BUTTON:LABEL=Ear;TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTOBJECT:TIP=</pre>
 
 
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><p><em>Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.</em></p>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><p><em>Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.</em></p>
  
<pre>HOVER LOAD SPEC=The_Ear</pre>
+
<pre>CLICK xLOAD SPEC=</pre>
 +
[[Toolbox/The_Ear]]
  
<pre>BUTTON:LABEL=Middle;TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTOBJECT:TIP=</pre>
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_ear Middle Ear]</h1><p><em>The middle ear has tiny bones that transmit pressure from the outer ear to the inner ear.</em></p>
+
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_ear Middle Ear]</h1><p><em>The middle
 +
ear has tiny bones that transmit vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear
 +
.</em></p>
  
<pre>HOVER LOAD SPEC=Middle_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
+
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=</pre>
 +
[[Toolbox/Middle_Ear_Anatomy]]
  
 
+
<pre>NEXTOBJECT:TIP=</pre>
<pre>BUTTON:LABEL=Inner;TIP=</pre>
 
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_ear Inner Ear]</h1><p><em>The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.</em></p>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_ear Inner Ear]</h1><p><em>The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.</em></p>
  
<pre>HOVER LOAD SPEC=Inner_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
+
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=</pre>
 +
[[Toolbox/Inner_Ear_Anatomy]]
  
 
<pre>//The three buttons at the top of the page act when you hover on them.  The three corresponding regions defined next act when you click on them.</pre>
 
<pre>//The three buttons at the top of the page act when you hover on them.  The three corresponding regions defined next act when you click on them.</pre>
  
 +
<pre>ZONECOLOURS=
 +
[
 +
[0,100,100,255],
 +
[193,95,255,255],
 +
[255,95,234,255],
 +
[0,20,10,255],
 +
[0,20,20,255],
 +
[0,20,30,255],
 +
[0,20,40,255],
 +
[0,20,50,255],
 +
[0,20,60,255],
 +
[0,20,70,255],
 +
[0,20,80,255],
 +
[0,20,90,255],
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[0,20,100,255],
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[0,20,110,255],
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[0,20,120,255],
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[0,20,130,255],
 +
[0,20,140,255],
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[255,95,136,255],
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[133,95,255,255]
 +
]
 +
</pre>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,100,100,255);TIP=</pre>
+
 
 +
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
  
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><p><em>Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.</em></p>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><p><em>Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.</em></p>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(193,95,255,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
  
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_ear Middle Ear]</h1><p><em>The middle ear has tiny bones that transmit pressure from the outer ear to the inner ear.</p><p>Click to learn more.</em></p>
+
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_ear Middle Ear]</h1><em><p>The middle
 +
ear has tiny bones that transmit vibrations in the tympanic membrane from the
 +
outer ear to the inner ear.</p><p>Click to learn more.</p></em>
  
 
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=Middle_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
 
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=Middle_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
  
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(255,95,234,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_ear Inner Ear]</h1><p><em>The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.</p><p>Click to learn more</em></p>
+
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_ear Inner Ear]</h1><em><p>The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.</p><p>Click to learn more.</p></em>
  
 
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=Inner_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
 
<pre>CLICK LOAD SPEC=Inner_Ear_Anatomy</pre>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,10,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_cartilage Elastic Cartilages]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_cartilage Elastic Cartilages]</h1>
 
<em><p>Elastic cartilage holds the shape of the outer ear.  The shape of the outer ear is important, as it helps collect sounds and aids in determining direction of sound.  Bone would be brittle and at risk of being broken.</p></em>
 
<em><p>Elastic cartilage holds the shape of the outer ear.  The shape of the outer ear is important, as it helps collect sounds and aids in determining direction of sound.  Bone would be brittle and at risk of being broken.</p></em>
Line 65: Line 122:
 
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_cartilage Elastic Cartilage]
 
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_cartilage Elastic Cartilage]
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,20,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ossicles Auditory Ossicles]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ossicles Auditory Ossicles]</h1>
 
<em><p>The ossicles are tiny bones that transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.  Muscles can [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_reflex tighten and slacken] so as to make this system for transmitting sound more or less sensitive.</p></em>
 
<em><p>The ossicles are tiny bones that transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.  Muscles can [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustic_reflex tighten and slacken] so as to make this system for transmitting sound more or less sensitive.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,30,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semicircular_canal Semicircular Canals]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semicircular_canal Semicircular Canals]</h1>
 
<em><p>The semicircular canals are concerned with balance and equilibrium</p></em>
 
<em><p>The semicircular canals are concerned with balance and equilibrium</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,40,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestibule_of_the_ear Vestibule]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vestibule_of_the_ear Vestibule]</h1>
 
<em><p>The vestibule of the ear is also concerned with balance and equilibrium.  Like the cochlea, it contains 'hair cells' which are sensitive to motion.</p></em>
 
<em><p>The vestibule of the ear is also concerned with balance and equilibrium.  Like the cochlea, it contains 'hair cells' which are sensitive to motion.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,50,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_nerve Auditory Nerve]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auditory_nerve Auditory Nerve]</h1>
 
<em><p>The auditory nerves conduct signals from the ears to the brain.  There is also auditory processing in the nerves.</p></em>
 
<em><p>The auditory nerves conduct signals from the ears to the brain.  There is also auditory processing in the nerves.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,60,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochlea Cochlea]</h1>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochlea Cochlea]</h1>
 
<em><p>The Cochlea is a spiral shaped organ that has standing waves of sound in it.  The spiral shape is relevant to its ability to sensitively sense different frequencies of sound.</p></em>
 
<em><p>The Cochlea is a spiral shaped organ that has standing waves of sound in it.  The spiral shape is relevant to its ability to sensitively sense different frequencies of sound.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,70,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_window Round Window]</h1><em><p>The round window helps in equalising the pressure of the fluid in the inner ear.  It moves outwards as the oval window is pushed in, and vice versa.</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_window Round Window]</h1><em><p>The round window helps in equalising the pressure of the fluid in the inner ear.  It moves outwards as the oval window is pushed in, and vice versa.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,80,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustachian_tube Auditory Tube]</h1><em><p>The Auditory tube equalises pressure between the inside and outside of the ear.  This is related to the sensation of 'ears popping' when flying.</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustachian_tube Auditory Tube]</h1><em><p>The Auditory tube equalises pressure between the inside and outside of the ear.  This is related to the sensation of 'ears popping' when flying.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,90,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oval_window Oval Window]</h1><em><p>The oval window is a membrane that transmits vibrations in the ossicles to the fluid in the inner ear.  It is oval rather than round, so that it transmits all relevant frequencies.  Were it round there would be characteristic frequencies that it absorbed more than others.</p></em>
+
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oval_window Oval Window]</h1><em><p>The oval window is a membrane that transmits vibrations in the ossicles to the fluid in the inner ear.  It is oval rather than round, so that it transmits all relevant frequencies.  Were it round, there would be characteristic frequencies that it absorbed more than others.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,100,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tympanic_cavity Tympanic Cavity]</h1><em><p>The Tympanic Cavity is an air filled region of the inner ear</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tympanic_cavity Tympanic Cavity]</h1><em><p>The Tympanic Cavity is an air filled region of the inner ear</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,110,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eardrum Tympanic Membrane]</h1><em><p>The Tympanic membrane or ear drum converts vibrations of sound in air to vibrations of the ossicles</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eardrum Tympanic Membrane]</h1><em><p>The Tympanic membrane or ear drum converts vibrations of sound in air to vibrations of the ossicles</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,120,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear_canal External Acoustic Meatus]</h1><em><p>The ear canal brings sound to the middle ear.  The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the outer ear is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear_canal External Acoustic Meatus]</h1><em><p>The ear canal brings sound to the middle ear.  The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the outer ear is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,130,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auricle_(anatomy) Auricle]</h1><em><p>The auricle is the outermost part of the ear</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auricle_(anatomy) Auricle]</h1><em><p>The auricle is the outermost part of the ear</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(0,20,140,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><em><p>Click to go to the wikipedia page on the ear</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]</h1><em><p>Click to go to the wikipedia page on the ear</p></em>
 +
 +
<pre>CLICK GOTO=</pre>
 +
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear The Ear]
  
 
<pre>//There are two zones that 'do the same' as the labels.</pre>
 
<pre>//There are two zones that 'do the same' as the labels.</pre>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(255,95,136,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auricle_(anatomy) Auricle]</h1><em><p>The auricle is the outermost part of the ear</p></em>
 
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auricle_(anatomy) Auricle]</h1><em><p>The auricle is the outermost part of the ear</p></em>
  
<pre>ZONE:RGBA=(133,95,255,255);TIP=</pre>
+
<pre>NEXTZONE:TIP=</pre>
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear_canal Ear Canal]</h1><em><p>The ear canal <em>(external acoustic meatus)</em> brings sound to the middle ear.  The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the outer ear is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.</p></em>
+
<h1>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear_canal Ear Canal]</h1><em><p>The ear canal (external acoustic meatus) brings sound to the middle ear.  The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the auricle is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.</p></em>
  
  
 
<pre>CREDITS:CAPTION=The Ear;TIP=</pre>
 
<pre>CREDITS:CAPTION=The Ear;TIP=</pre>
 
<b>Credits:</b> <em>[https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/WikiJournal_of_Medicine/Medical_gallery_of_Blausen_Medical_2014 Images by Blausen Medical ©2014; CC3 BY-SA]</em>
 
<b>Credits:</b> <em>[https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/WikiJournal_of_Medicine/Medical_gallery_of_Blausen_Medical_2014 Images by Blausen Medical ©2014; CC3 BY-SA]</em>

Latest revision as of 13:55, 31 January 2020


This is an example interactive diagram created using the Wikidiagrams library. One aim of the project is to provide interactive diagrams that explain everything to do with Audacity. The code is also expected to be useful for other code projects, and eventually for Wikipedia too, for biochemical pathways and other interactive diagrams.

This is the spec for the interactive diagram which shows the structure of the Ear. There's an interactive demo.

This is one of three related pages. The other two are:

The detailed data for the regions, buttons and tooltips follows.

START
ADD:DATA=
[
{"HStack":[
    {"VStack":[
        {"Rectangle":"The Ear"},
        {"Rectangle":"Middle Ear Anatomy"},
        {"Rectangle":"Inner Ear Anatomy"}
        ],
        "id":"Chooser",
        "choice":1,
        "sizeAs":0.32},
    {"Overlay":[
        {"Rectangle":"",
         "style":"chosen"},
        {"Image":"Ear"}
        ]}
    ],
    "margins":1.6
    }
]

This is the chooser object.

NEXTOBJECT:
IMAGE:NAME=Ear

952px-Blausen 0328 EarAnatomy.png

HOTSPOTS

952px-Blausen 0328 EarAnatomyHS.png


NEXTOBJECT:TIP=

The Ear

Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.

CLICK xLOAD SPEC=

Toolbox/The_Ear

NEXTOBJECT:TIP=

Middle Ear

The middle

ear has tiny bones that transmit vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear

.

CLICK LOAD SPEC=

Toolbox/Middle_Ear_Anatomy

NEXTOBJECT:TIP=

Inner Ear

The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.

CLICK LOAD SPEC=

Toolbox/Inner_Ear_Anatomy

//The three buttons at the top of the page act when you hover on them.  The three corresponding regions defined next act when you click on them.
ZONECOLOURS=
[
	[0,100,100,255],
	[193,95,255,255],
	[255,95,234,255],
	[0,20,10,255],
	[0,20,20,255],
	[0,20,30,255],
	[0,20,40,255],
	[0,20,50,255],
	[0,20,60,255],
	[0,20,70,255],
	[0,20,80,255],
	[0,20,90,255],
	[0,20,100,255],
	[0,20,110,255],
	[0,20,120,255],
	[0,20,130,255],
	[0,20,140,255],
	[255,95,136,255],
	[133,95,255,255]
]


NEXTZONE:TIP=

The Ear

Sound is transformed from pressure waves in air to vibrations of tiny bones, to movement in cells that generate electrical impulses in the auditory nerve.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Middle Ear

The middle

ear has tiny bones that transmit vibrations in the tympanic membrane from the

outer ear to the inner ear.

Click to learn more.

CLICK LOAD SPEC=Middle_Ear_Anatomy


NEXTZONE:TIP=

Inner Ear

The cochlear of the inner ear is a spiral shaped organ that has nerve cells that respond to different frequencies of sound.

Click to learn more.

CLICK LOAD SPEC=Inner_Ear_Anatomy
NEXTZONE:TIP=

Elastic Cartilages

Elastic cartilage holds the shape of the outer ear. The shape of the outer ear is important, as it helps collect sounds and aids in determining direction of sound. Bone would be brittle and at risk of being broken.

HOVER CLICK=Foo

Elastic Cartilage

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Auditory Ossicles

The ossicles are tiny bones that transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window. Muscles can tighten and slacken so as to make this system for transmitting sound more or less sensitive.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Semicircular Canals

The semicircular canals are concerned with balance and equilibrium

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Vestibule

The vestibule of the ear is also concerned with balance and equilibrium. Like the cochlea, it contains 'hair cells' which are sensitive to motion.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Auditory Nerve

The auditory nerves conduct signals from the ears to the brain. There is also auditory processing in the nerves.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Cochlea

The Cochlea is a spiral shaped organ that has standing waves of sound in it. The spiral shape is relevant to its ability to sensitively sense different frequencies of sound.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Round Window

The round window helps in equalising the pressure of the fluid in the inner ear. It moves outwards as the oval window is pushed in, and vice versa.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Auditory Tube

The Auditory tube equalises pressure between the inside and outside of the ear. This is related to the sensation of 'ears popping' when flying.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Oval Window

The oval window is a membrane that transmits vibrations in the ossicles to the fluid in the inner ear. It is oval rather than round, so that it transmits all relevant frequencies. Were it round, there would be characteristic frequencies that it absorbed more than others.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Tympanic Cavity

The Tympanic Cavity is an air filled region of the inner ear

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Tympanic Membrane

The Tympanic membrane or ear drum converts vibrations of sound in air to vibrations of the ossicles

NEXTZONE:TIP=

External Acoustic Meatus

The ear canal brings sound to the middle ear. The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the outer ear is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Auricle

The auricle is the outermost part of the ear

NEXTZONE:TIP=

The Ear

Click to go to the wikipedia page on the ear

CLICK GOTO=

The Ear

//There are two zones that 'do the same' as the labels.
NEXTZONE:TIP=

Auricle

The auricle is the outermost part of the ear

NEXTZONE:TIP=

Ear Canal

The ear canal (external acoustic meatus) brings sound to the middle ear. The inner structures of the ear are housed in a bony compartment, whereas the auricle is outside the skull and uses cartilage to hold its shape.


CREDITS:CAPTION=The Ear;TIP=

Credits: Images by Blausen Medical ©2014; CC3 BY-SA