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|This page serves as a library of additional EQ curves for old disc recordings that can be used in the Equalization effect in current Audacity.
The audio on almost every phonograph record is not the same as the one once performed. For technical reasons the signal had to be modified before the discs were cut. Playback equalization (EQ or de-emphasis) will modify the signal back to original. Only by this music lovers can enjoy the original sound of the music performed long ago from their rare discs.
The most relevant EQ curves are presented as Table1
- You can download some of them from LIBRARY and import them into Audacity
- You can generate them yourself with “78 rpm EQ Curve Generator”
- You can set the sliders of any digital or analogue graphic equalizer manually
- You can determine appropriate settings for any adjustable analogue pre amplifier.
Which EQ curve will be needed for a specific record label is answered
- for 78 rpm shellacs in table 2
- for early LPs in table 3
Equalization (EQ) Curves Explained
When phonograph records are made, the sound being recorded is deliberately distorted by reducing the volume of the low frequencies and increasing the volume of the high frequencies. This process, known as 'pre-emphasis', allows the low frequencies to be accommodated in the limitations of the record groove and reduces the effect of high frequency surface noise. If pre-emphasis was not carried out, the bass notes in the music would create a groove in the record that oscillated so wildly that the stylus could jump out of it on playback, and the treble notes would be drowned out by the surface noise of the stylus in the groove.
On playback, the pre-emphasis must be reversed in order to restore the original sound. This is known as 'de-emphasis' or equalization (EQ).
Modern vinyl records use a method of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis adopted by the Record Industry Association of America (RIAA) in the 1950's, and the EQ curve used is known as the RIAA curve. However, before the RIAA curve was adopted, each record label used its own EQ curve for recording and, for these records (78rpm and early vinyl), the correct EQ curve must be used for playback.
Each 78rpm EQ curve is a combination of two filter characteristics; a bass boost curve, defined by a 'Bass Turnover' (or 3dB) frequency, and a treble cut curve, defined by a '10 kHz Gain Rolloff' parameter, i.e. a defined level of treble cut at 10 kHz.
As an example, Figure 1 below shows the characteristic of the bass boost curve defined by a 500Hz Bass Turnover, and Figure 2 shows the characteristic of the treble cut curve defined by a 10 kHz Gain Rolloff of -13.7dB. These two curves, when combined, give the characteristic shown in Figure 3.
Figure 1. Bass Boost curve: 3dB at 500 Hz
Figure 2. Treble Cut curve: -13.7 dB at 10 kHz
Figure 3. Combined Bass Boost and Treble Cut curve
The EQ curve may also include a Low Frequency Shelving filter, (although it is absent from the definition of most 78 rpm EQ curves). This addition reduces the effect of the bass boost at very low frequencies (typically 50 or 100 Hz) in order to attenuate low-frequency noise such as turntable rumble. Figure 4 shows the effect of a 50 Hz LF shelving filter being added to the curve in Figure 3. This is in fact the RIAA standard EQ curve.
Figure 4. Combined Bass Boost, Treble Cut and 50 Hz LF Shelving curve
Acoustically recorded (pre-electric) 78rpm records have a 'flat' EQ curve, i.e. with no bass boost or treble cut and, in some early electric EQ curves, while there is a bass boost curve, the 10 kHz Gain Rolloff is zero, i.e. there is no treble cut.
Note that in the combined EQ curve, the gains at the Bass Turnover frequency and at 10 kHz may be different from those specified by the parameters. This is not an error, but is due to fact that the gains of the bass boost and treble cut curves are simply added together.
Because 78 rpm EQ curves were non-standard and, in many cases, accurate records were not kept to show what EQ curves were used when recording 78s, there is a degree of uncertainty about what is the correct playback EQ for many record labels. The tables below have been obtained from websites which, in their turn, have compiled data from a number of sources and should prove reasonably accurate. However, the ear of the listener is the final arbiter - if it doesn't sound right, it isn't right!
According to NAB standards, the nominal speed of a 78 RPM record is precisely 78.26 RPM +/- 0.5%.
The most relevant EQ curves are presented in Table1. All curves are described from the point of view of a playback or de-emphasis curve, where bass / low frequencies must be amplified / boosted and where treble / high frequencies must be attenuated / cut in order to achieve the original sound that had been recorded. The corresponding pre-emphasis curve used for cutting the master disk is inverse. (When comparing with the lists provided by the manufacturers of equalizer preamps it should be considered that those may be misleading, as they might not quote the correct parameters of the curve but rather the next-best possible settings of these devices.)
Table1 gives the three parameters to characterize any EQ curve: the turnover frequency f1 for bass shelf, f2 for bass boost and f3 for treble cut (or alternatively the three corresponding time constants τ1, τ2 and τ3). These are the necessary conditions to compute and plot any EQ curve, determine the correct settings of a digital equalizer or to solder an electronic filter circuit.
The gain at two typical frequencies will give you a rough impression of what the curve does to the audio from the record. The frequencies are:
- 50 Hz, where usually the bass shelf becomes effective
- 10 kHz, because the treble curve is often indicated by rolloff at 10.000 Hz
The very descriptive “code” is a good tool to avoid misunderstanding when EQ curves come under various alias names (what they do too often).
- The first 3-digit number indicates the turnover frequency of bass boost (f2)
- The letter in the middle is
- N … (“No”) if no bass shelving is applied, or
- X … 12 dB (this is never used)
- C … 14 dB (possibly named C after Columbia LP curve)
- A … 16 dB
- B … 18 dB
- R … 20 dB (possibly named R after RCA or RIAA)
- The last number shows the reduction or rolloff of treble at 10 kHz and is always preceded by a minus sign. Please mind that this is only a code and that the exact value – after normalization to 0 dB at 1000 Hz – might be different.
This code can be used to find the correct settings of most equalizer preamps.
(Example: “RIAA 500R-13.7” means for the RIAA curve that bass must be boosted below 500 Hz, but no more than + 20 dB and that treble must be cut at 10.000 Hz to – 13.7 dB)
The geographic region and the time period are added to allow a qualified guess for the required EQ should a record label not be listed. In general, American recording curves were more deliberate in cutting bass and boosting treble. The British and Europeans tended to apply only the necessary minimum of bass attenuation and often no treble boost at all, that means they had a “flat” treble curve. Early pre-emphasis curves were simply built and rather soft. In the late years (after 1945) curves became highly sophisticated, with the third turnover frequency f1 added to manage the bass shelving and also with gain ranging from -20 dB to + 20dB.
Table 1: Playback Equalization Curves
- Table1 is mostly based on Tab. 2a of: Heinz O. Graumann, Schallplatten-Schneidkennlinien und ihre Entzerrung, in: FUNKSCHAU 1958 / Heft 15, pp 359 ff
-  CCIR used by Deutsche Grammophon modified with 50 Hz bass shelving => IEC N78 [Brice]
-  Used by British Decca and for London/Decca releases in US, mostly M33
-  Gary A. Galo, The Columbia LP Equalization Curve, ARSC conference March 2008; Gary A. Galo, Disc Recording Equalization Demystified, in ARSC Journal Fall 1996
78 rpm EQ Curve Generator
EQ Curves for Audacity can be generated from these Frequency and Rolloff values using the experimental Nyquist plug-in "78 RPM EQ Curve Generator". This plug-in is obtainable from the top of this Forum topic and requires Audacity 1.3.13 or later. Please give feedback on this plug-in, or ask for help if you need it, by replying to that Forum topic.
- Extract 78EQCurveGen.ny from the zip file downloaded from the above Forum topic.
- Place 78EQCurveGen.ny in the "Plug-Ins" folder inside the Audacity installation folder, then launch or restart Audacity. For more help installing the .ny file to the correct location, click here.
- Click . You can find help inside the plug-in by choosing one of the Help options in "Select Function or Help".
- Choose the curve you want from the list below.
- Enter the values for your chosen curve for
- "Bass Turnover Frequency (Hz)"
- "10 kHz Gain Rolloff (dB)"
- "LF Shelving Frequency (Hz)" (if a value is given)
in the equivalent boxes in the plug-in dialog.
- Click "OK" in the plug-in to save the .xml file to your chosen location.
- Select some audio and choose .
- Choose "Save/Manage Curves...".
- Choose "Import...", navigate to the location where you saved the .xml file from 78EQCurveGen.ny, then "Open".
- Click "OK".
Acoustic Recordings (before 1926) are beyond the scope of this page. In these pioneer years speeds varied from 70 to 90 rpm, groove modulation could be lateral, vertical or diagonal and some records were even cut outward with the audio starting at the center. A special turntable and a range of styli / needles are needed to replay. All acoustics were recorded without any pre-equalization (“flat”), simply because a modulation of the signal was impossible before electric microphones and amplifiers came into use. Nevertheless some playback equalization is recommended to compensate for the severe losses during recording. This can even be as high as + 16 dB at 100 Hz and – 16 dB at 10.000 Hz!
- MidiMagic  gives useful information on vintage labels as Edison, Berliner, Pathé or Zonophone and playback EQ recommendations.
- Scientific help regarding valuable historic recordings can be found at
- iasa (International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives)
- and at ARSC (Association for Recorded Sound Collections).
Broadcast Transcription Discs are not in the focus of this page either. Those were recordable lacquer discs, mostly 16 inch in diameter, played at 33⅓ or 78 rpm. They were professionally used by radio broadcasters. In America many of these discs were recorded under the standard of the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) of 1942. The very same recording curve had been used by NBC under the name “Orthacoustic” since mid 1930s. This “NAB Transcription (1942)” playback EQ setting can be downloaded here LINK
British BBC used a rather exotic curve as a house standard. The version in use after 1949 has been reconstructed from Longford-Smith’s publication of 1952 as an Audacity EQ setting “BBC Transcription (1949)” and can be downloaded her LINK
78 rpm Shellac Labels and Their EQ
This page is about electrical recordings since 1925 on 78 rpm discs made of shellac! The invention of the Electrical Recording System by Bell Laboratories / Western Electric which was licensed to industry leaders Columbia Records and Victor set some de-facto standards: speed is always 78.26 rpm, cut is always lateral (same as modern LPs) and the groove type is always Normal Groove (also named coarse groove). Therefore shellacs are sometimes referred to as N78 (which stands for normal groove discs, played at 78 rpm). A turntable capable of 78 rpm will be useful. You will need a MONO stylus with 2.5 mil (64 μm), for early electricals possibly one with 3 mil (76 μm) and this Audacity Wiki!
In case sources did not agree on one EQ curve, their different opinions are listed and you will have to trust your ears.
Table 2: 78 rpm Shellac Labels and Their EQ (this is only layout)
|Label||Remarks||Curve Name||Code|| turnover
| treble rolloff
[dB @ 10kHz]
|_Electrical 78's (general)||1925-1938||300||0||ES|
|_Electrical 78's (general)||1932-1938||500||0||ES,RF,i|
|_Electrical 78's (general)||1938-1946||300 or 500||0 or -5||ES|
|_Electrical 78's (general)||1947-1954||300 or 500||NAB||ES|
|_European 78's (general)||300||-5||ES|
|Bluebird||sub-label of RCA, see: RCA-Victor||ES|
|Capitol||founded 1942, to 1951||American 78||250N-8||250||N||-8||mm|
|Capitol / Capitol Cetra||1951-1955||Capitol||400N-12.7||400||N||-12,7||mm|
|Cetra||founded 1930s by RAI, Italy||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||GH|
|Cetra-Soria||founded 1949, Cetra prod. in US||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||mm|
|Columbia (American)||1926 (replay with HiCut for resonant peaks)||200||-7||i,RF,mil|
|Columbia (American)||1926||American 78||250N-5||250||-5||ES,mil|
|Columbia (American)||1926 - 1940 (?)||American 78||250N-8||250||N||-8||mm|
|Columbia (American)||1938 - end, most||Columbia 78||300N-16||300||N||-16||ES,RF,GH,i,mm,mil|
|Columbia (British)||from 1926, from 1931 EMI(UK) - 1953||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||ES,RF,GH,i|
|Regal Zonophone (Brit.)||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||ES,mil|
|Decca (American)||pre 1946||300||0||ES|
|Decca (American)||very few||Modern 78||500N-D||500||N||DECCA||mm|
|Decca (American)||to 1951||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||N||-5 (3dB/oct)||mm|
|Decca (American)||1953-Nov 1955||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||mm|
|Decca (British)||to 1944||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||ES,mm|
|Decca (British)||1944-1956||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||N||-5 (3dB/oct)||ES,mm|
|Decca (British)||some 1949-1956||London||500C-10.5||500||C||-10,5||mm|
|Decca (European)||to 1944||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||mm|
|Decca (European)||1944-1950||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||N||-5 (3dB/oct)||ES,mm|
|Decca (European)||some 1954-1962||CCIR||350N-10||350||N||-10||mm|
|Decca FFRR||1949, = London||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||-5 (3dB/oct)||i,RF,mil|
|Deutsche Grammophon||alias "DGG", taken over by Telefunken 1937||300||-5||ES,mil|
|Polydor||sub-label of Deutsche Grammophon||300||-8,5 or -10||ES,mil|
|Polydor||sub-label of Deutsche Grammophon, M33??||300||-8,5 or -10||ES,mil|
|Dial||78s used same EQ as 33⅓ and 45s||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||ES,mil|
|Electrola||700 or 800||-10||ES,mil|
|EMI||British, 1931 - 1953||European 78||250N-0||250||0||ES,RF,i,mil|
|EMI-HMV (British)||prod. by EMI(UK), 1927 - 1953||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||ES,mm,mil|
|His Master's Voice (Brit.)||prod. by EMI(UK), 1927 - 1953||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||RF,GH,i,mm|
|Exclusive||all||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||N||-5 (3dB/oct)||mm|
|Harmony Acoustics||thru 8/29||300||-16||mil|
|Hit of the Week||1930 - 1932||500||-5||ES,mil|
|London||early , 1947-1948 ?||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||mil|
|London FFRR||1949, = Decca FFRR||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||-5 (3dB/oct)||RF,i,mil|
|MacGregor||to 1965?||American 78||250N-8||250||N||-8||mm|
|Mercury||to 1951||American 78||250N-8||250||N||-8||mm|
|MGM||founded 1946, iasa: 2500Hz/-12.3dB||MGM||500N-12||500||N||-12||ES,RF,i,mil|
|Musicraft||700 or 750||-14||ES,mil|
|Odeon||some early electricals||700||0||ES,mil|
|Odeon||pre 1947||300||0 or -8,5||ES,mil|
|OKeh||1926-1941 (a Columbia label since 1926)||American 78||250N-8||250||N||-8||mm|
|OKeh||1941 on||Modern 78||400N-8||400||N||-8||mm|
|OKeh||electricals||??? Amer.78 250N-8||300||0 or -8.5||ES,mil|
|Parlophone||varies with era||300 or 500||0 or –8.5||mil|
|RCA-Victor (European)||1930-50||European 78||250N-0||250||N||0||ES|
|RCA Victor||1931 -1941||American 78||250N-6||250||N||-6||mm|
|RCA-Victor||1931/2 "DUO", N-groove played at 33.33||American 78||250N-6||250||N||-6||mm|
|RCA-Victor||1935||300 or 500||-5||ES|
|RCA Victor||1938 - 1947||500||-7||RF,i|
|RCA Victor||1938 – 1948||500||0 to -12||mil|
|RCA Victor||1941 -1947 (some even to Sept 1952)||Old RCA||800N-8||800||N||-8||mm|
|RCA Victor||1947 -1951||RCA||800N-12.7||800||N||-12,7||mm|
|RCA Victor||1947 - 1952||500||-12||RF,i|
|RCA Victor||1950 -Sep 1952||Old Orthophonic||500N-12.7||500||N||-12,7||mm|
|Supraphone||Czech, since 1932, subsid.of Ultraphon||Telefunken||400N-0||400||N||0||ES,mil|
|Technichord||American, all N78 from 1938||Technichord||800N-12||800||N||-12||ES,mm,mil|
|Telefunken||1945-1950||FFRR 78||250N-D||250||N||-5 (3dB/oct)||mm|
|Tempo (American)||All (est'd 1946 or 49, to Oct.52)||400N-6||400||N||-6||mm|
|Theme||all N78||American 78||250N-6||250||N||-6||mm|
|Ultraphon||Europe 1929-1932,taken over by Telefunken||Telefunken||400N-0||400||N||0||ES,mil|
|Turicaphon||Switzerland, 1930 - , subsid.of Ultraphon||Telefunken||400N-0||400||N||0|
|Victor||1925 78 RPM||250 or 300||0 or -5||mil|
|Victor||1926 -1931||American 78||250N-6||250||N||-6||mm|
|Victor||see: RCA-Victor (bougt by RCA in 1930)|
|Vocalion||electricals, to 1940||300||0||ES,mil|
|WESTREX||English Western Electric||200||0||mil,W|
|WESTREX||later||300 or 500||0||W|
- ES ... Esoteric Sound  and the EQ list from the manual of their re-equalizer preamp 
- GH ... Graumann, Heinz; Schallplatten-Schneidkennlinien und ihre Entzerrung,in: FUNKSCHAU 1958, Heft 15, pp 359 ff
- i ...... iasa – International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives iasa-replay-eq: 
- mil ... Millennia Music and Media Systems  and their list MM Legacy Recordings 78 EQ Chart.pdf
- mm .. MidiMagic  is probably the most comprehensive and reliable websource. Data were researched in the 1970s and are based on publications of the 1950s.
- RF ... Russell Fisher / W.A.M.S. (Wolverine Antique Music Society) 
- W .... Roger Wilmut 
- Recommended analogue reference:
- James R. Powell, Jr. and Randall G. Stehle, "Playback Equalizer Settings for 78 RPM Recordings", Third Edition, Gramophone Adventures, Portage, MI, 1993, 2002, 2007.
Early 33⅓ LP Labels And Their EQ
After the launch of the “long-playing record 33⅓ rpm” by Columbia in 1948 (which used vinyl discs and a narrower groove width – microgroove records or M33) record producers experimented a lot to fully exploit the potential of the new medium. Bass shelving came into use to limit the necessary bass boost in playback and – as a consequence of the extended frequency range – necessary gain reached values as high as +/- 20 dB. So recording characteristics varied considerably!
The “poor sound quality” of some early LPs is nowadays considered to be mostly a result of the wrong EQ in playback.
Standardization was reached with the “New Orthophonic” curve of RCA which was to become the world standard by the name of RIAA. In America most labels switched to RIAA around 1955 – Europe followed by 1962.
In case that sources did not agree on one EQ curve, their different opinions are listed and you will have to trust your ears. Later recordings on the labels listed should be all RIAA. The following label should have used only RIAA all the time: Bethlehem, Classic Editions, Chess, Clef, Composer Recordings, McIntosh, Montilla, New Jazz, Norgram, Prestige, Romany, Roulette, Savoy and Walden [High Fidelity Magazine, MidiMagic].
Table 3: Early 33⅓ LP Labels And Their EQ (beta 2016 May 3)
|Label||Remarks||Curve Name||Code|| turnover
| treble rolloff
[dB @ 10kHz]
|Allied||to 1958 (!)||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||Hi,ES,mil,mm|
|American Recording Society||to 1958 (!)||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,mm,JP|
|American Recording Society||(4095 / E2KP>9607||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||ES|
|Concert Hall||Marked AES, E1KP/E2KP matrix||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||ES,mil,mm,RF|
|Concert Hall (British)||to 1956 (or 1954)||London||500C-10.5||500||C||-10,5||Hi,mm,JP|
|Concert Hall (American)||to 1954, XTV matrix to 20386||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||Hi,ES,mm,JP,RF|
|Contemporary||2001-02, 2501-02, 2505, 2507, 3501||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mm,JP|
|Contemporary||after AP121 no such # in discography||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||ES|
|Cook||to 1958?, regular mono records||500N-15||500||N||var. -12 to -15||ES,mm|
|Cook (binaural)||binaural: inside band -0 rolloff, outs.-11 dB||500||0 ins./-11 outs.||Hi,ES,mil|
|Coral||up to MG4400, (w/raised matrix)||700||-5||ES|
|Coral||est. 1949, to 1958? (a DECCA subsidiary)||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||Hi,mm,JP|
|Coral||400 or 750||-12 or -16||mil|
|Decca||(up to MG4400)(w/raised matrix)||700||-5 or -10||ES|
|Decca (American)||1953, 33⅓ and 45s||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||mm,JP,RF|
|Decca (American)||1953 - Nov 1955, 33⅓ and 45s||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||Hi,mm,JP,RF|
|Decca (European)||most from 1954||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||mm|
|Decca (European)||some 1954-1962||CCIR||350N-10.5||350||N||-10,5||mm|
|Decca ffrr||1951 -||300||-14||JP,RF|
|Decca ffrr||1953 -||???London||450||-10 or -11||JP,RF|
|Deutsche Grammophon||1952 - 1955, possibly modified with 16dB/50Hz bass shelf to IEC 78 / B.S.78||CCIR 78||350N-10.5||350||N||-10,5||GH,RB|
|Deutsche Grammophon||alias "DGG"||LP||-10||ES|
|Dial||1948-1954, 33⅓ and 45s||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||ES,mil,mm,JP|
|Dial*||bass of EP 45s improved by 700Hz t/o||500||-16||ES|
|Dot||to 1958, 33⅓ and 45s||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||mm|
|Elektra||EKL 2-15, 18-20, 24-26 (rel. 1952-55)||Bartok||630N-16||629||N||-16||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP|
|Elektra||EKL 17, 22 (released 1954)||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mm,JP|
|Elektra||EKL 16, 21, 23 (rel. 1955) and from 27 up||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||Hi,ES,mm|
|EMI||from July 17, 1953||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||ES|
|EMI-Angel||to 1952, Deutsche Grammophon sold in US||500N-16||500||N||-16||mm|
|Esoteric||(E2KP to 9607)||RIAA||-12||ES|
|Esoteric||ES 500,517 and EST 5,6||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mil,mm,RF,JP|
|Esoteric||New (Oct 1955)||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||Hi|
|Festival||to 1955||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||ES,mil,mm|
|Folkways||all (1948 - 1955)||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||Hi,ES,mm,JP,RF|
|Fraternity Records||up to F-1013||RIAA||0||ES|
|Good-Time Jazz||1, 5-8||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||Hi,ES,mm,JP|
|Good-Time Jazz||2, 4, 20 -; from Oct 1955, re-recording||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||Hi,mm|
|Good-Time Jazz||3, 9-19||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP|
|Handel Society||to 1957||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||ES,mil,mm|
|Haydn Society||to 1957; (ARL1173)#||500||-10||ES|
|Lyrichord||before 1953, (E0-E3 matrix)||400||-12||ES|
|Lyrichord||if "629" listed on jacket, "newer"||629||-16||ES,mil,JP,RF|
|Mercury||(MG10000 series-approx fit)||500||-10||ES|
|Mercury||1951 - Oct 1954, 33⅓ and 45s, ( E0LRC3981)#||Old Ortho.||500N-12.7||500||N||-12,7||ES,mil,mm,JP,RF|
|RCA Victor||from Aug 1952 -; (>E2RP4094) 33⅓ and 45s||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||Hi,GH,ES|
|RCA Victor||to 1954||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi|
|Remington||to 1958? (up to 199-135)#||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP,RF|
|Riverside||to Sept (?) 1955||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP|
|Stradivari||to 1958||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||ES,mil,mm|
|Transradio||to 1958?||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||Hi,ES,mm,JP|
|Urania||to 1954; most||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||mil,mm,RF|
|Urania||224, 603, 7059, 7063, 7065-66, 7069||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mm,JP,RF|
|Vanguard||411-42, 6000-18, 7001-11, 8001-04||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||mm|
|Vanguard||411-22, 6000-18||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||RF|
|Vanguard||411-42, 6000-18, 7001-11, 8001-04.||Columbia LP||500||-16||JP|
|Vanguard||411-22, 6000-18, 7001-11, 8001-04||COL* or 750||-16||mil|
|Vanguard||411-42, 6000-18, 7001-11, 8001-04, (up to XTV20386)||500||-16||Hi,ES|
|Vanguard||since ca 1954||RIAA||500R-13.7||500||R||-13,7||Hi|
|Vox||(up to XTV20386), PL8400)#||RIAA||NAB||ES|
|Vox||1948-1951 or labeled "LP"||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||GH,mil,mm,JP|
|Vox||1951 - Oct 1954||NAB||500B-16||500||B||-16||Hi,mil,mm,JP,RF|
|Westminster||labeled AES; up to E2KP 9607||AES||400N-12||400||N||-12||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP,RF|
|Westminster||to Oct 1955, up to XTV20386||Columbia LP||500C-16||500||C||-16||Hi,ES,mil,mm,JP,RF|